HALAKU KHAN PDF

He also suppressed the Ismaili sect and defeated the last Abbasid caliph. Hulagu left Mongolia in the autumn of at the head of a large army. Traveling slowly along a carefully prepared route, from which all natural obstacles had been removed, he did not cross the Oxus, then the frontier between the Chaghatai Khanate and Persia, until the beginning of By the end of that year the greater part of the Ismaili castles had been captured, and the Grand Master himself was a prisoner in Mongol hands.

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He also suppressed the Ismaili sect and defeated the last Abbasid caliph. Hulagu left Mongolia in the autumn of at the head of a large army. Traveling slowly along a carefully prepared route, from which all natural obstacles had been removed, he did not cross the Oxus, then the frontier between the Chaghatai Khanate and Persia, until the beginning of By the end of that year the greater part of the Ismaili castles had been captured, and the Grand Master himself was a prisoner in Mongol hands.

He was sent to Mongolia, where he was executed by the order of the Great Khan, and with the wholesale massacre of the Ismailis that followed, the sect was all but wiped out. On Jan. With his death the Islamic institution of the caliphate came to an end, although it was artificially preserved by the Mamluk rulers of Egypt and the title was afterward assumed by the Ottoman sultans.

From Baghdad, Hulagu withdrew into Azerbaijan, henceforward destined to be the seat of the Il-Khanid dynasty, and from here in the autumn of he set out to conquer Syria.

Aleppo was taken after a short siege, Damascus surrendered without a blow, and by the early summer of the Mongols had reached Gaza on the frontier with Egypt. However, news of the death of his brother the Great Khan Mangu in China caused Hulagu to return to Persia, and the depleted army that he had left behind was decisively defeated by the Egyptians at Ain Jalut in Palestine on Sept. In Hulagu was involved in hostilities in the Caucasus area with his cousin Berke, the ruler of the Golden Horde and the ally of his enemies, the Mamluk rulers of Egypt.

He died on Feb. He was the last of the Mongol princes to be accorded the traditional heathen burial, several young women being interred with him to serve their master in the hereafter. The kingdom which Hulagu had founded comprised, in addition to Persia and the states of the southern Caucasus, the present-day Iraq and eastern Turkey. He and his successors bore the title of Il-Khan subordinate khan as vassals of the Great Khan in Mongolia and afterward in China. Like several of his successors, he was a great builder, the most celebrated of his edifices being a great observatory on a hill north of Maragha, where Moslem, Christian, and Far Eastern scientists carried out their researches.

For a treatment incorporating more recent research see J. Boyle, ed.

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Hulagu Khan

Adopting Islamthey oversaw what has been described as khn Renaissance in Iran. Hulagu led his army first to Iran, where he successfully campaigned against the Lursthe Bukharaand the remnants of the Khwarezm-Shah dynasty. Ideologie und GeschichteBeirut,pp. It broke down or silted up. The Crusaders, though traditional enemies of the Mamluks, also regarded the Mongols as the greater threat. March 23, This article is available in halakj.

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HALAKU KHAN PDF

Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions. He arrived at Transoxiana in He easily destroyed the Lurs, and the Assassins surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut without a fight, accepting a deal that spared the lives of their people in early He chose Azerbaijan as his power base, while ordering Baiju to retreat to Anatolia. Once near the city he divided his forces to threaten the city on both the east and west banks of the Tigris. Much of the army was slaughtered or drowned. The Mongols under Chinese general Guo Kan laid siege to the city on January 29, , [6] constructing a palisade and a ditch and wheeling up siege engines and catapults.

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