Atlantic coast, from the Carolinas south to Florida and thence west along the Gulf Coast, through the Caribbean to northern South America, and along the Pacific coast from Mexico to Peru Eudocimus ruber Atlantic coast of South America from southeast Brazil to Colombia, as well as inland in the Orinoco basin, and the islands of the Netherlands Antilles, and Trinidad and Tobago The two species hybridise, and are sometimes considered conspecific. The genus Eudocimus appears to be most closely related to but more primitive than Plegadis , the latter distinguished anatomically by the conformation of the tarsometatarsus. The fossil record is poor, but the Early Miocene fossil species Plegadis paganus has some intermediate features. The derived nature of this species indicates ibises belonging to Eudocimus were already in existence at this time. Eudocimus peruvianus was described from a tarsometatarsus that differed slightly from E. Remains of neither species are common in the beds.
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Sex-related mortality of white ibis Eudocimus albus nestlings during a starvation event. Aguilera, E. Ramo, B. Food habits of the scarlet and white ibis in the Orinoco Plains. The Condor, Audubon, J. Edinburgh, Scotland: A. Bildstein, K. Energetic consequences of sexual size dimorphism in white ibises Eudocimus albus.
The Auk, Post, J. Johnston, P. Freshwater wetlands, rainfall, and the breeding ecology of white ibises in coastal South Carolina. Bilstein, K. Age-related differences in the flocking and foraging behavior of white ibises in a South Caroling salt marsh. Colonial Waterbirds, 6: Brouwer, K. Schifter, M. Longevity and breeding records of ibises and spoonbills Threskiornithidae : In captivity. Clapp, R. Klimkiewicz, J. Longevity records of North American birds: Gaviidae through Alcidae.
De Santo, T. Johnston, K. Wetland feeding site use by white ibises Eudocimus albus breeding in coastal South Carolina. McDowell, K. Plumage and behavioral development of nestling white ibises. Dronen, N. Patagifer lamothei n. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 23SS.
Forrester, D. Parasites and diseases of wild birds in Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. Frederick, P. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Bildstein, B. Fleury, J. Conservation of large, nomadic populations of white ibises Eudocimus albus in the United States. Philopatry and nomadism: Contrasting long-term movement behavior and population dynamics of white ibises and wood storks. Gawlik, D. The effects of prey availability on the numerical response of wading birds.
Heath, J. Relationships among mercury concentrations, hormones, and nesting effort of white ibises Eudocimus albus in the florida everglades. White ibis integument color during the breeding season. Frederick, T. Edwards, L. Reproductive physiology of free-living white ibises Eudocimus albus in the Florida Everglades. Frederick, J. Kuslan, K. White ibis Eudocimus albus. The Birds of North America Online, 1. Herring, G.
Gawlik, M. Cook, J. Sensitivity of nesting great egrets Ardea alba and white ibises Eudocimus albus to reduced prey availability. Johnston, E. Intraspecific predation in juvenile white ibis. Kushlan-A, J. Foraging behavior of the white ibis.
Kushlan-B, J. Population energetics of the American white ibis. Kushlan-C, J. Sexual dimorphism in the white ibis. Kushlan, J. Steinkamp, K. Parsons, J. Capp, M. Acosta Cruz, M. Coulter, I. Davidson, L. Dickson, N. Edelson, R. Elliot, R. Erwin, S. Hatch, S. Kress, R. Milko, S. Miller, K. Mills, R. Paul, R. Phillips, J. Saliva, B. Sydeman, J. Trapp, J. Wheeler, K. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas. Feeding ecology and prey selection in the white ibis. Condor, Petit, D. Development of formation flying in juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus.
Shield, M. Fish crow predation on eggs of the white ibis at Battery Island, North Carolina. Stinner, D.
It then fades to a paler pink, and the tip of the bill becomes blackish. The chest is often bare and there can be a white tuft on the head. The irises are brown. The exposed skin is pinkish initially, apart from the tip of the bill which is dark gray, but turns gray within a few days of hatching. The gray to sandy gray brown juvenile plumage appears between weeks two and six, and face and bill become pink a few weeks later, while the legs remain gray. The irises have turned slate-gray by this stage. As it matures, white feathers begin appearing on the back and it undergoes a gradual molt to obtain the white adult plumage.
American white ibis