COGSA 1971 PDF

It contains sections as follows: 1. Application of Hague Rules as amended; 2. Contracting States, etc. Absolute warranty of seaworthiness not to be implied in contracts to which Rules apply; 4. Application of Act to British possessions, etc. Extension of application of Rules to carriage from ports in British possessions, etc.

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Shortly after its passage, cargo owners determined that cargo could be handled more efficiently if placed on pallets , a process that results in numerous boxes or bags of cargo being consolidated on a single pallet. Some courts agreed. A foot 6. Later, shipowners began offering cargo owners the opportunity to ship their cargoes in large ocean shipping containers.

The containers came in two sizes — 8 feet 2. Again, some courts agreed. The rest of the world, seeing this as an attempt by shipowners to free themselves from responsibility for protecting cargo, amended the Hague Rules in with the Visby Amendments which eliminated the "per package" limitation and substituted a limitation per kilogram. In so doing, litigation concerning limitations on liability became virtually non-existent outside the United States. Limitation of Liability for Cargo not shipped in Packages[ edit ] Many types of cargo are not shipped in packages such as automobiles, yachts, cranes, and heavy construction equipment.

For example, a cargo of aluminium ingots , which were not packaged for shipment, would be heavy and dense, so the customary freight unit for aluminum ingots would be the long ton , a measurement of weight. By comparison, a shipment of canoes , which were not packaged for shipment, would be light but would take up a large volume, ensuring the customary freight unit would be the measurement ton of cubic feet 2. If a canoe were 2 feet 0. Again, seeing an opportunity to limit their liability for cargo damage, shipowners began freighting all cargo by unit, rather than by units of weight or measurement.

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Carriage of Goods by Sea Act

Shortly after its passage, cargo owners determined that cargo could be handled more efficiently if placed on pallets , a process that results in numerous boxes or bags of cargo being consolidated on a single pallet. Some courts agreed. A foot 6. Later, shipowners began offering cargo owners the opportunity to ship their cargoes in large ocean shipping containers.

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Carriage Of Goods By Sea Act 1971 [of England]

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