Fue miembro de Army Nurse Corps. Logros En se convierte en directora de American Nurses Associations. En es incorporada al American Academy of Nursig living legend all of fame. En aparece en la lista de las 50 grandes personalidades americanas. Ayudar al paciente a identificar los problemas o las dificultades percibidas. Aplicar los principios de relaciones humanas a los problemas.
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She was the second daughter born of six children. Gustav was an illiterate, hard-working father and Otyllie was an oppressive, perfectionist mother. She wanted more out of life, and knew nursing was one of few career choices for women in her day.
She witnessed the devastating flu epidemic of , a personal experience that greatly influenced her understanding of the impact of illness and death on families. Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of free or inexpensive labor. She then worked as a staff nurse in Pennsylvania and New York City. A summer position as nurse for the New York University summer camp led to a recommendation for Peplau to become the school nurse at Bennington College in Vermont.
Here she met and worked with leading figures in British and American psychiatry. After the war, Peplau was at the table with many of these same men as they worked to reshape the mental health system in the United States through the passage of the National Mental Health Act o In the early s, Peplau developed and taught the first classes for graduate psychiatric nursing students at Teachers College.
Peplau was a member of the faculty of the College of Nursing at Rutgers University from to At Rutgers, Peplau created the first graduate level program for the preparation of clinical specialists in psychiatric nursing. Peplau was a tireless advocate for advanced education for psychiatric nurses. She thought that nurses should provide truly therapeutic care to patients, rather than the custodial care that was prevalent in the mental hospitals of that era.
During the s and s, she conducted summer workshops for nurses throughout the United States, mostly in state psychiatric hospitals. In these seminars, she taught interpersonal concepts and interviewing techniques, as well as individual, family, and group therapy.
Peplau was an advisor to the World Health Organization , and was a visiting professor at universities in Africa, Latin America, Belgium, and throughout the United States. A strong advocate for research in nursing , she served as a consultant to the U. Surgeon General, the U. She participated in many government policy-making groups.
She served as president of the American Nurses Association from to , and as second vice president from to Peplau emphasized the nurse-client relationship , holding that this relationship was the foundation of nursing practice. Her book, Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, was completed in Publication took four additional years, mainly because Peplau had authored a scholarly work without a coauthoring physician, which was unheard of for a nurse in the s.
At the time, her research and emphasis on the give-and-take of nurse-client relationships was seen by many as revolutionary. Nurses, she thought, could facilitate this through observation, description, formulation, interpretation, validation, and intervention. The nurse then validates her inferences by checking with the client for accuracy.
The result may be experiential learning, improved coping strategies and personal growth for both parties. Therefore, the patient should be treated with respect and courtesy, as anybody would expect to be treated. The nurse should not prejudge the patient or make assumptions about the patient, but take the patient as he or she is. The nurse should treat the patient as emotionally stable unless evidence states otherwise.
Resource role: The nurse provides answers to questions primarily on health information. The resource person is also in charge of relaying information to the patient about the treatment plan. Usually the questions arise from larger problems, therefore the nurse would determine what type of response is appropriate for constructive learning. The nurse should provide straightforward answers when providing information on counseling. Teaching role: The teaching role is a role that is a combination of all roles.
Peplau determined that there are two categories that the teaching role consists of: Instructional and experimental. The instructional consists of giving a wide variety of information that is given to the patients and experimental is using the experience of the learner as a starting point to later form products of learning which the patient makes about their experiences.
Counseling role: Peplau believes that counselling has the biggest emphasis in psychiatric nursing. The counselor role helps the patient understand and remember what is going on and what is happening to them in current life situations. Also, to provide guidance and encouragement to make changes. Surrogate role: The patient is responsible for putting the nurse in the surrogate role.
The nurse helps the patient recognize the similarities and differences between the nurse and the past relationship. Leadership role: Helps the patient assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying way. The nurse helps the patient meet these goals through cooperation and active participation with the nurse. This is the phase during which the nurse and the patient become acquainted, and set the tone for their relationship, which will ultimately be patient centered.
During this stage, it is important that a professional relationship is established, as opposed to a social relationship. This includes clarifying that the patient is the center of the relationship, and that all interactions are, and will be centered around helping the patient. This phase is usually progressed through during a highly impressionable phase in the nurse-client relationship, because the orientation phase occurs shortly after admission to a hospital, when the client is becoming accustomed to a new environment and new people.
The nurse begins to know the patient as a unique individual, and the patient should sense that the nurse is genuinely interested in them. Identification Phase[ edit ] The client begins to identify problems to be worked on within relationship. A sign that the transition from the orientation phase to the working phase has been made, is if the patient can approach the nurse as a resource, instead of feeling a social obligation to the nurse Peplau, The nurse and the patient work towards discharge and termination goal.
The nurse and the client summarize and end their relationship. One of the key aspects of a nurse-client relationship, as opposed to a social relationship, is that it is temporary, and often of short duration Peplau, In a more long term relationship, termination can commonly occur when a patient is discharged from a hospital setting, or a patient dies.
In more short term relationships, such as a clinic visit, an emergency room visit, or a health bus vaccination visit, the termination occurs when the patient leaves, and the relationship is usually less complex. However, in most situations, the relationship should terminate once the client has established increased self-reliance to deal with their own problems.
Hildegard Peplau: biografía, teoría
Bibliografía y aportaciones de Hildegard Peplau a la Enfermería Psiquiátrica