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Limitations: Separation and Isolation of data: When the data is stored in separate files it becomes difficult to access. It becomes extremely complex when the data has to be retrieved from more than two files as a large amount of data has to be searched. Data redundancy: Due to the decentralized approach, the file system leads to uncontrolled duplication of data. Data inconsistency: Data Redundancy leads to data inconsistency. Data Dependence: Programs are dependent on the files and vice-versa; that is, when the physical format of the file is changed, the program has also to be changed.

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Limitations: Separation and Isolation of data: When the data is stored in separate files it becomes difficult to access. It becomes extremely complex when the data has to be retrieved from more than two files as a large amount of data has to be searched. Data redundancy: Due to the decentralized approach, the file system leads to uncontrolled duplication of data. Data inconsistency: Data Redundancy leads to data inconsistency.

Data Dependence: Programs are dependent on the files and vice-versa; that is, when the physical format of the file is changed, the program has also to be changed. Difficulty in accessing data Inserting, Editing, Deleting and Fetching : File based systems are very much dependent on application programs. Any query or report needed by the organization has to be developed by the application programmer. Security problems: Enforcing Security Constraints in file processing system is very difficult.

DBMS is the software package to facilitate the creation and maintenance of computerized database. It provides users with tools to add, delete, access, modify, and analyze data stored in one location. A group can access the data by using query and reporting tools that are part of the DBMS or by using application programs specifically written to access the data.

The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMSs include a report writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes.

The following are examples of database applications: Computerized library systems, Flight reservation systems, Computerized parts inventory systems. It typically supports query languages, which are in fact high-level programming languages, dedicated database languages that considerably simplify writing database application programs.

Database languages also simplify the database organization as well as retrieving and presenting information from it. A DBMS provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency control, and recovering the database after failures and restoring it from backup files, as well as maintaining database security.

Advantages of DBMS over File System Efficient data storage: Data is stored as single logical structure so many applications can use the same data so data redundancy is reduced hence efficient data storage. Data integrity: Data is consistent as redundancy is reduced. Correctness of data is ensured by providing datatypes and rules. Efficient Data Querying: Standard way of querying the database is provided. Programmer need not write own programs to query the data instead use the commands provided by DBMS.

Security: Database level security is provided. Database is protected from unauthorized user. Backup and Recovery: Backup and recovery mechanism is provided. Data independence: Data Independence is isolating an upper level from the changes in the organization or structure of a lower level.

For example, if changes in the file organization of a data file do not demand for changes in the functions in the DBMS or in the application programs, data independence is achieved.

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