Facial expression of someone with chronic anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder[ edit ] Main article: Generalized anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder GAD is a common disorder, characterized by long-lasting anxiety which is not focused on any one object or situation. Those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry, and become overly concerned with everyday matters. Generalized anxiety disorder is "characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance". A diagnosis of GAD is made when a person has been excessively worried about an everyday problem for six months or more. Common phobias are flying, blood, water, highway driving, and tunnels. When people are exposed to their phobia, they may experience trembling, shortness of breath, or rapid heartbeat.
|Published (Last):||3 April 2009|
|PDF File Size:||15.72 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.2 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Facial expression of someone with chronic anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder[ edit ] Main article: Generalized anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder GAD is a common disorder, characterized by long-lasting anxiety which is not focused on any one object or situation.
Those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry, and become overly concerned with everyday matters. Generalized anxiety disorder is "characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance".
A diagnosis of GAD is made when a person has been excessively worried about an everyday problem for six months or more. Common phobias are flying, blood, water, highway driving, and tunnels. When people are exposed to their phobia, they may experience trembling, shortness of breath, or rapid heartbeat.
These panic attacks , defined by the APA as fear or discomfort that abruptly arises and peaks in less than ten minutes, can last for several hours. However, sometimes the trigger is unclear and the attacks can arise without warning. To help prevent an attack one can avoid the trigger. This being said not all attacks can be prevented. As such, those suffering from panic disorder experience symptoms even outside specific panic episodes. Often, normal changes in heartbeat are noticed by a panic sufferer, leading them to think something is wrong with their heart or they are about to have another panic attack.
In some cases, a heightened awareness hypervigilance of body functioning occurs during panic attacks, wherein any perceived physiological change is interpreted as a possible life-threatening illness i.
Main article: Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is the specific anxiety about being in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing or where help may be unavailable.
A common manifestation involves needing to be in constant view of a door or other escape route. In addition to the fears themselves, the term agoraphobia is often used to refer to avoidance behaviors that sufferers often develop. These avoidance behaviors can often have serious consequences and often reinforce the fear they are caused by. Social anxiety disorder[ edit ] Main article: Social anxiety disorder Social anxiety disorder SAD; also known as social phobia describes an intense fear and avoidance of negative public scrutiny, public embarrassment, humiliation, or social interaction.
This fear can be specific to particular social situations such as public speaking or, more typically, is experienced in most or all social interactions.
Social anxiety often manifests specific physical symptoms, including blushing, sweating, and difficulty speaking. As with all phobic disorders, those suffering from social anxiety often will attempt to avoid the source of their anxiety; in the case of social anxiety this is particularly problematic, and in severe cases can lead to complete social isolation. Social physique anxiety SPA is a subtype of social anxiety. Post-traumatic stress disorder[ edit ] Main article: Post-traumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD was once an anxiety disorder now moved to trauma- and stressor-related disorders in DSM-V that results from a traumatic experience.
Post-traumatic stress can result from an extreme situation, such as combat, natural disaster, rape, hostage situations, child abuse, bullying, or even a serious accident. It can also result from long-term chronic exposure to a severe stressor--  for example, soldiers who endure individual battles but cannot cope with continuous combat. Common symptoms include hypervigilance , flashbacks , avoidant behaviors, anxiety, anger and depression.
Such treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , psychotherapy and support from family and friends. Studies have found the degree of exposure to a disaster has been found to be the best predictor of PTSD. Separation anxiety is a normal part of development in babies or children, and it is only when this feeling is excessive or inappropriate that it can be considered a disorder.
This may include training the parents and family on how to deal with it. Often, the parents will reinforce the anxiety because they do not know how to properly work through it with the child. In addition to parent training and family therapy, medication, such as SSRIs, can be used to treat separation anxiety.
It can also be caused by various events that make that particular individual uncomfortable. Its occurrence is very common. Often, an individual will experience panic attacks or extreme anxiety in specific situations. A situation that causes one individual to experience anxiety may not affect another individual at all. For example, some people become uneasy in crowds or tight spaces, so standing in a tightly packed line, say at the bank or a store register, may cause them to experience extreme anxiety, possibly a panic attack.
It is a condition where the person has obsessions distressing, persistent, and intrusive thoughts or images and compulsions urges to repeatedly perform specific acts or rituals , that are not caused by drugs or physical disorder, and which cause distress or social dysfunction. Selective mutism usually co-exists with shyness or social anxiety. Even moderate, sustained alcohol use may increase anxiety levels in some individuals.
In these patients, an initial increase in anxiety occurred during the withdrawal period followed by a cessation of their anxiety symptoms. Painting, varnishing and carpet-laying are some of the jobs in which significant exposure to organic solvents may occur. However, the precise relationship between cannabis use and anxiety still needs to be established. People with these disorders have highly sensitive systems; hence, their systems tend to overreact to seemingly harmless stimuli.
Sometimes anxiety disorders occur in those who have had traumatic youths, demonstrating an increased prevalence of anxiety when it appears a child will have a difficult future. Persistence of anxiety[ edit ] At a low level, anxiety is not a bad thing. In fact, the hormonal response to anxiety has evolved as a benefit, as it helps humans react to dangers.
Researchers in evolutionary medicine believe this adaptation allows humans to realize there is a potential threat and to act accordingly in order to ensure greatest possibility of protection. It has actually been shown that those with low levels of anxiety have a greater risk of death than those with average levels.
This is because the absence of fear can lead to injury or death. Evolutionary mismatch[ edit ] It has been theorized that high rates of anxiety are a reaction to how the social environment has changed from the Paleolithic era. For example, in the Stone Age there was greater skin-to-skin contact and more handling of babies by their mothers, both of which are strategies that reduce anxiety.
Researchers posit that the lack of constant social interaction, especially in the formative years, is a driving cause of high rates of anxiety. Many current cases are likely to have resulted from an evolutionary mismatch , which has been specifically termed a "psychopathogical mismatch". For example, even though an anxiety reaction may have been evolved to help with life-threatening situations, for highly sensitized individuals in Westernized cultures simply hearing bad news can elicit a strong reaction.
Simply knowing some anxiety is beneficial may alleviate some of the panic associated with mild conditions. A number of anxiolytics achieve their effect by modulating the GABA receptors. The basolateral complex processes sensory-related fear memories and communicates their threat importance to memory and sensory processing elsewhere in the brain, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and sensory cortices.
Another important area is the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, which controls species-specific fear responses, via connections to the brainstem , hypothalamus , and cerebellum areas. In those with general anxiety disorder, these connections functionally seem to be less distinct, with greater gray matter in the central nucleus.
Another difference is that the amygdala areas have decreased connectivity with the insula and cingulate areas that control general stimulus salience, while having greater connectivity with the parietal cortex and prefrontal cortex circuits that underlie executive functions.
Researchers have noted "Amygdalofrontoparietal coupling in generalized anxiety disorder patients may Clinical and animal studies suggest a correlation between anxiety disorders and difficulty in maintaining balance.
SK2 potassium channels mediate inhibitory influence on action potentials and reduce arborization. By overexpressing SK2 in the basolateral amygdala, anxiety in experimental animals can be reduced together with general levels of stress-induced corticosterone secretion.
LeDoux and Lisa Feldman Barrett have both sought to separate automatic threat responses from additional associated cognitive activity within anxiety.
Diagnosis[ edit ] Anxiety disorders are often severe chronic conditions, which can be present from an early age or begin suddenly after a triggering event. They are prone to flare up at times of high stress and are frequently accompanied by physiological symptoms such as headache, sweating, muscle spasms, tachycardia , palpitations , and hypertension , which in some cases lead to fatigue. In casual discourse the words "anxiety" and "fear" are often used interchangeably; in clinical usage, they have distinct meanings: "anxiety" is defined as an unpleasant emotional state for which the cause is either not readily identified or perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable, whereas "fear" is an emotional and physiological response to a recognized external threat.
The fact that there is considerable overlap between symptoms of anxiety and depression, and that the same environmental triggers can provoke symptoms in either condition, may help to explain this high rate of comorbidity. The most common manifestations in individuals with anxiety disorder are avoidance of intercourse, premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction among men and pain during intercourse among women.
Sexual dysfunction is particularly common among people affected by panic disorder who may fear that a panic attack will occur during sexual arousal and posttraumatic stress disorder. These include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, sedatives including prescription benzodiazepines , opioids including prescription pain killers and illicit drugs like heroin , stimulants such as caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines , hallucinogens , and inhalants. There is no clear evidence as to whether therapy or medication is more effective; the choice of which is up to the person with the anxiety disorder and most choose therapy first.
Adherence problems are more likely among older people, who may have difficulty understanding, seeing, or remembering instructions. As of , cannabis is specifically not recommended as a treatment. Family therapy is a form of treatment in which the child meets with a therapist together with the primary guardians and siblings. Art and play therapy are also used. Art therapy is most commonly used when the child will not or cannot verbally communicate, due to trauma or a disability in which they are nonverbal.
Participating in art activities allows the child to express what they otherwise may not be able to communicate to others. The therapist may intercede from time to time with a question, comment, or suggestion.
This is often most effective when the family of the child plays a role in the treatment. Children who have an anxiety disorder are likely to have other disorders such as depression, eating disorders , attention deficit disorders both hyperactive and inattentive. Anxiety disorders in children are often more challenging to identify than their adult counterparts owing to the difficulty many parents face in discerning them from normal childhood fears. Likewise, anxiety in children is sometimes misdiagnosed as an attention deficit disorder or, due to the tendency of children to interpret their emotions physically as stomach aches, head aches, etc.
What separates disordered anxiety from normal childhood anxiety is the duration and intensity of the fears involved.
Anxiety Disorder (Gangguan Kecemasan)
What is known is that when the underlying anxiety disorder is treated, insomnia often improves as well Summary Sleep problems are very common in people with anxiety. Treating the anxiety can usually help improve sleep quality as well. One type of anxiety disorder called panic disorder is associated with recurring panic attacks. Panic attacks produce an intense, overwhelming sensation of fear that can be debilitating.
Standing in line or being in a crowd Being outside of the home alone People with agoraphobia often avoid these situations, in part, because they think being able to leave might be difficult or impossible in the event they have panic-like reactions or other embarrassing symptoms. In the most severe form of agoraphobia, an individual can become housebound. Separation anxiety disorder: Separation anxiety is often thought of as something that only children deal with; however, adults can also be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. People who have separation anxiety disorder have fears about being parted from people to whom they are attached. They often worry that some sort of harm or something untoward will happen to their attachment figures while they are separated. This fear leads them to avoid being separated from their attachment figures and to avoid being alone. People with separation anxiety may have nightmares about being separated from attachment figures or experience physical symptoms when separation occurs or is anticipated.