Because of this, in laboratory practices, just as workers need to protect themselves from hazardous solid or liquid materials by wearing adequate clothing and safety goggles, laboratory ventilation is a prime consideration for the safety of personnel and the protection of property. This document, in effort to inform the designer of the necessary guidelines and conflicts among various criteria, as well as inform the user of information needed by designers, establishes ventilation guidelines that can be used to achieve acceptable concentrations of air contaminants. This standard is intended for use by employers, architects, industrial hygienists, safety engineers, chemical hygiene officers, environmental health and safety professionals, ventilation system designers, facilities engineers, maintenance personnel, and testing and balance personnel. A key piece of equipment in any LVMP is a laboratory fume hood. This type of device filters laboratory air by containing and exhausting air contaminants. Due to the importance of fume hoods in managing the hazardous chemicals that have found their way into the air of laboratory workspaces, OSHA
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Copying and networking prohibited. American National Standard Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the standards developer.
Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution.
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Printed in the United States of America. Contents Page Foreword 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. General coverage. This standard describes required and recommended practices for the design and operation of laboratory ventilation systems used for control of exposure to airborne contaminants.
It is intended for use by employers, architects, industrial hygienists, safety engineers, Chemical Hygiene Officers, Environmental Health and Safety Professionals, ventilation system designers, facilities engineers, maintenance personnel, and testing and balance personnel. The standard is presented in a two-column format. The left column represents the requirements of the standard as expressed by the use of shall. The right column provides description and explanation of the requirements and suggested good practices or examples as expressed by the use of should.
Appendices 1 and 2 provide supplementary information on definitions and references. Appendix 3 provides more detailed information on stack design. Appendix 4 provides a sample audit document and Appendix 5 presents a sample table of contents for a Laboratory Ventilation Management Plan. Requirements should be considered minimum criteria and can be adapted to the needs of the User establishment. It is the intent of the standard to allow and encourage innovation provided the main objective of the standard, control of exposure to airborne contaminants, is met.
Demonstrably equal or better approaches are acceptable. When standard provisions are in conflict, the more stringent applies. Response and Update. As with all ANSI standards, this is a work in progress. Future versions of the standard will incorporate suggestions and recommendations submitted by its Users and others. Committee approval of the standard does not necessarily imply that all committee members voted for its approval. At the time it approved this standard the Z9 Committee had the following members: J.
Organization Represented. Name of Representative Alliance of American Insurers. Hughes American Foundrymens Society. Scholz American Glovebox Society.
Crooks American Industrial Hygiene Association. Blair American Insurance Services Group. Behls American Welding Society. Pumphrey Chicago Transit Authority. Wainless US Department of the Navy. Kramer Individual Members G. Adams D. Burton J. Cook L. DiBerardinis S. Gunsel R. Karbowski G. Knutson M. Loan K. Paulson J. Price J. Rock M. Rollins T. Smith L. Turner Subcommittee Z9.
Such laboratories should satisfy several general objectives, in addition to being suited for the intended use: They should be safe places to work; They should be in compliance with environmental, health, and safety regulations; They should meet any necessary criteria for the occupants and technology involved in terms of control of temperature, humidity, and air quality; and They should be as energy efficient as is practical while adhering to above objectives.
This standard addresses the ventilation requirements to satisfy the first criterion: making the laboratory a safe place to work. When techniques and designs are available to reconcile conflicts between safety criteria and other, possibly conflicting demands, they are discussed. General laboratory safety practices are not included except when they may relate to the ventilation systems proper function or effectiveness.
Traditional ventilation system designs typically do not meet all of the foregoing criteria, and most importantly they very often do not ensure adequate safety for the laboratory occupants. Persons responsible for laboratory operations and those working within a laboratory are typically not very knowledgeable about how ventilation systems directly impact laboratory occupant health and safety. Thus, they may not be aware of inadequate ventilation or other ventilation system deficiencies.
On the other hand, ventilation system design professionals cannot be expected to be fully aware of all the particular hazards posed by every type of operation that may occur in a laboratory room. Furthermore, the specific work and operations of some laboratory facilities may need to be kept more confidential and may even be highly secretive.
This standard sets forth the requirements for the design and operation of laboratory ventilation systems. This standard does not apply to the following types of laboratories or hoods except as it may relate to general laboratory ventilation: Explosives laboratories; Radioisotope laboratories; Laminar flow hoods e. It does not apply to comfort or energy considerations unless they have an effect on contaminant control ventilation.
This standard: Sets forth ventilation requirements that will, combined with appropriate work practices, achieve acceptable concentrations of air contaminants; Informs the designer of the requirements and conflicts among various criteria relative to laboratory ventilation; Informs the User of information needed by designers. Management participation in the selection, design, and operation of laboratory ventilation systems is important to the overall success of the effort.
The program should be written and supported by top management. Management should understand that ventilation equipment is not furniture, but rather it is part of installed capital equipment.
It must be interfaced to the building ventilation system. Adequate laboratory chemical hoods, special purpose hoods, or other engineering controls shall be used when there is a possibility of employee overexposure to air contaminants generated by a laboratory activity. The containment and capture of a laboratory hood shall be considered adequate if, in combination with prudent practice, laboratory worker chemical exposure levels are maintained below applicable in-house exposure limits as recommended in 2.
When these containment sources are not adequate, the laboratory shall conduct a hazard determination to evaluate the situation. If exposure limits [e. Qualified industrial hygienists and toxicologists working in conjunction may be best suited to accomplish this need.
A Laboratory Design Professional must anticipate that toxic and hazardous substances may be used at some point during the lifetime use of the facility. Unless the employer determines, through periodic monitoring, that exposure levels for substances used in laboratory chemical hoods routinely exceed the action levels or, in the absence of action levels, the PELs , employees are not likely to be overexposed.
Please be aware that the employer is responsible for ensuring that laboratory chemical hoods are functioning properly and implementing feasible control measures to reduce employee exposures if the exposures exceed the PELs. Morris, 4 April Overexposure to chemicals implies a means of being able to define both an unsafe limit and the analytical means of determining when such limits are exceeded, neither of which may be commonplace nor practical. Hazard determination, on the other hand, as defined by 29 CFR Furthermore, air changes per hour is not the appropriate concept for designing contaminant control systems.
Contaminants should be controlled at the source. In addition there may be need for general room exhaust not through a hood used for contaminant control. The general ventilation system shall be designed to replace exhausted air and provide the temperature, humidity, and air quality required for the laboratory procedures without creating drafts at laboratory chemical hoods.
Because the exhaust from that type of system must be discharged to the outside or treated intensively before being used as return air, these systems usually are not economical for controlling exposure to hazardous materials compared with use of local exhaust hoods. Dilution ventilation shall be provided to control the buildup of fugitive emissions and odors in the laboratory. Persons participating in writing the plan should be knowledgeable in industrial hygiene, laboratory procedures and chemicals, the design of the ventilation systems, and the systems maintenance needs.
The plan should be disseminated and become the basis of employee training. The plan shall address the laboratory operations and procedures that might generate air contamination in excess of the requirements of Section 2. These operations shall be performed inside a hood adequate to attain compliance.
Ensuring that testing and monitoring are done on schedule; Maintaining adequate records; Performing visual checks; Training employees; and Performing any other related task assigned by the employer. At a minimum, the responsible person should coordinate these activities. In each operation using laboratory ventilation systems, the user shall designate a responsible person.
This is necessary because many of the chemical hazards in a laboratory are chronic in nature and an employees ability to sense overexposure is subjective. Employers shall promote awareness that laboratory hoods are not appropriate control devices for all potential chemical releases in laboratory work.
Operations During Maintenance Shutdown. Housekeeping Before and After Maintenance. Safety for Maintenance Personnel. Work Permits and Other Communications. Testing and Monitoring Instruments.