Another thing that creates misunderstandings is the use of the same common name for many different specimens. Here are just some of the differentiators and indicators to help distinguish between the most commonly used: 1. Any person familiar with the true Neem would not have a problem telling the difference between the two. Melia azedarach shows bi-pinnate or even tri-pinnate leaves vs single for Azadirachta indica. Photographs illustrating foliar characteristics of Azadirachta indica a,c,e,g,i and Melia azedarach b,d,f,h,j. These Thai trees sometimes exhibit red or white flowers.
|Published (Last):||18 July 2013|
|PDF File Size:||14.37 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||16.52 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Azadirachta indica Azadirachta is a genus of two species of trees in the family Meliaceae. Numerous species have been proposed for the genus but only two are currently recognized, Azadirachta excelsa and the economically important tree Azadirachta indica , the Neem tree, from which neem oil is extracted.
Both species are native to the Indomalaysian region, and A. In traditional medicine in India, the resin from the trees have been attributed with medical benefits. A component in the resin is an effective insecticide ; see azadirachtin. Another component is an effective anti-fungal; see Azadirachta indica. These species should not be confused with Melia azedarach , which is a tree in a different genus of the mahogany family. Related Research Articles Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to the Indian subcontinent, i. It is typically grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees also grow in islands located in the southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil. Meliaceae, the mahogany family, is a flowering plant family of mostly trees and shrubs in the order Sapindales. Azadirachtin, a chemical compound belonging to the limonoid group, is a secondary metabolite present in neem seeds.
It is a highly oxidized tetranortriterpenoid which boasts a plethora of oxygen-bearing functional groups, including an enol ether, acetal, hemiacetal, tetra-substituted epoxide and a variety of carboxylic esters. Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem, an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics.
It is the most important of the commercially available products of neem for organic farming and medicines. Cedrela is a genus of several species in the mahogany family, Meliaceae. They are evergreen or dry-season deciduous trees with pinnate leaves, native to the tropical and subtropical New World, from southern Mexico south to northern Argentina.
Melia azedarach, commonly known by many names, including chinaberry tree, Pride of India, bead-tree, Cape lilac, syringa berrytree, Persian lilac, and Indian lilac, white cedar, is a species of deciduous tree in the mahogany family, Meliaceae, that is native to Indomalaya and Australasia. The Burseraceae are a moderate-sized family of genera and about species of flowering plants. The actual numbers differ according to the time period in which a given source is written describing this family.
The Burseraceae are also known as the torchwood family, the frankincense and myrrh family, or simply the incense tree family. The family includes both trees and shrubs, and is native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
Neem cake organic manure is the by-product obtained in the process of cold pressing of neem tree fruits and kernels, and the solvent extraction process for neem oil cake. Neem has demonstrated considerable potential as a fertilizer. For this purpose, neem cake and neem leaves are especially promising. Puri , in his book on neem, has given details about neem seed cake as manure and nitrification inhibitor.
The author has described that, after processing, neem cake can be used for partial replacement of poultry and cattle feed. A larvicide is an insecticide that is specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect. Their most common use is against mosquitoes. Larvicides may be contact poisons, stomach poisons, growth regulators, or increasingly biological control agents. Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as North Indian rosewood, is a fast-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran.
Sissoo is a large, crooked tree with long, leathery leaves and whitish or pink flowers. Melia is a genus of flowering trees in the family Meliaceae.
Forest dieback is a condition in trees or woody plants in which peripheral parts are killed, either by pathogens, parasites or due to conditions like acid rain and drought. Two of the nine tipping points for major climate changes forecast for the next century, are directly related to forest diebacks. Parkia biglobosa, also known as the African locust bean is a perennial deciduous tree of the family Fabaceae. It is found in a wide range of environments in Africa and is primarily grown for its pods that contain both a sweet pulp and valuable seeds.
Where the tree is grown, the crushing and fermenting of these seeds constitutes an important economic activity. Various parts of the locust bean tree are used for medicinal and food purposes. As a standing tree, locust bean may have a positive effect on the yield of other nearby crops. Nimbin is thought to be responsible for much of the biological activities of neem oil, and is reported to have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, fungicidal, antihistamine and antiseptic properties.
Phomopsis azadirachtae is a fungus, a species of the genus Phomopsis. It has been identified as the fungus responsible for dieback in Azadirachta indica Neem in India. The species was first identified and described by Sateesh et al in Microsporum nanum is a pathogenic fungus in the family Arthrodermataceae. It is a type of dermatophyte which causes infection in dead keratinized tissues such as skin, hair, and nails.
Microsporum nanum is found worldwide and is both zoophilic and geophilic. Animals such as pigs and sheep are the natural hosts for the fungus; however, infection of humans is also possible. Majority of the human cases reported are associated with pig farming.
The fungus can invade the skin of the host; if it is scratched off by the infected animal, the fungus is still capable of reproducing in soil. Azadirachta excelsa, commonly known as sentang, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
The specific epithet excelsa is from the Latin meaning "lofty". Penicillium citrinum is an anamorph, mesophilic fungus species of the genus of Penicillium which produces tanzawaic acid A-D, ACC, Mevastatin, Quinocitrinine A, Quinocitrinine B, and nephrotoxic citrinin. Penicillium citrinum is often found on moldy citrus fruits and occasionally it occurs in tropical spices and cereals.
This Penicillium species also causes mortality for the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Because of its mesophilic character, Penicillium citrinum occurs worldwide. The first statin Mevastatin was isolated from this species. Deoxygedunin, or 14,deoxygedunin, is a naturally occurring tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the Indian neem tree, a plant that has been used in India since ancient times as a remedy for various ailments.
Deoxygedunin has been found to act as a potent, selective, small-molecule agonist of TrkB, the main receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF. It produces TrkB-dependent neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in mice and enhances learning processes.
In addition, deoxygedunin evokes rapid TrkB-dependent antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test, an animal model of depression, similarly to 7,8-dihydroxyflavone 7,8-DHF and ketamine, and notably with a greater potency than 7,8-DHF. References Mabberley, D.
Azadirachta, pp. In: Flora Malesiana ser. Pennington, T. A generic monograph of the Meliaceae. Blumea
In both stands, six representative plots of 0. Seedlings are normally ready for planting out after 6 months. The sweetly scented flowers are creamy-white. From the above relationships, it can be seen that the soil characteristics that best explain the differences in growth are slope for height and volume and K for dbh.